Tanzania has a long history of human habitation stretching back to our most distant ancestors. The so – called “Bantu migrations”, occurring between 3,000 and 5,000 years ago, brought agricultural and pastoral knowledge to the area as competing groups spread over the country in search of fertile soil and plentiful grazing for their herds. European missionaries and explorers mapped the interior of the country by following well – worn caravan routes, including Burton and Speke who in 1857 journeyed to find the source of the Nile. Traditional ways of life remained largely intact until the arrival of German colonizers in the late 19th century. On the Swahili coast, Indian Ocean trade began as early as 400 BCE between Greece and Azania, as the area was commonly known. Around the 4th century AD, coastal towns and trading settlements attracted Bantu – speaking peoples from the African hinterland. They settled around mercantile areas and often facilitated trading with the Arabs and Persians, who bartered for slaves, gold, ivory, and spices, sailing north with the monsoon wind. Between the 13th and 15th centuries, the settlements of Kilwa Kisiwani and the Zanzibar Archipelago reached their peak, with a highly cosmopolitan population of Indian, Arab and African merchants trading in luxury goods that reached as far as China. The completion of Portuguese domination in 1525 meant that trade, for a short time, was lessened, but rival Oman Arab influences soon took control of the caravan routes and regained complete control of the islands, even going so far as to make Zanzibar the capital of Oman in the 1840s. in the late 19th century, British influence in the Zanzibar Archipelago, in contrast to German influence on the Tanzanian Mainland, slowly suppressed the slave trade and brought the area under the influence of the Empire. Local rebellions in German East Africa, most notably the MajiMaji rebellion from 1905 to 1907, slowly weakened the colonizer’s grip on the nation and at the end of the First World War Germany ceded Tanganyika to English administration. Under leadership of Julius Kambarage Nyerere of TANU, popularly referred to as Mwalimu, or “teacher.” Tanganyika achieved full independence in 1961. Meanwhile, a violent revolution in Zanzibar ousted the Oman Sultancy and established a one – party state under the Afro – Shirazi Party in 1963. A year later, the United Republic of Tanzania was formed, unifying the Tanganyika mainland with the semi – autonomous islands of the Zanzibar Archipelago, and merging TANU and the ASP to form CCM, Chama Cha Mapinduzi, the party of the Revolution which rules Tanzania to the present day.
Tanzania Forestry Services Agency (TFS)
The Tanzania Forestry Services Agency (TFS), under the ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism is mandated with the responsibility of protecting and managing the country’s Forestry and bee resources with a legal custodianship of five (5) cultural and historical heritage sites, among others are Kondoa Rock Art Sites, Kaole Ruins, Tongoni Ruins and Bagamoyo Old Fort.
- KONDOA ROCK ART PAINTINGS SITES (KONDOA DISTRICT – DODOMA REGION)
The Kondoa Rock Art Paintings Sites is a series of caves carved into the side of a hill looking out over the steppe. The cave site is nine kilometers off the main highway from Kondoa to Arusha, about 20 kms north of Kondoa. The site has a spectacular collection of images from over 150 shelters depicting elongated people, animals, and hunting scenes. Today many of the shelters are still considered to have ritual associations with the people who live nearby, reflecting their beliefs, rituals and cosmological traditions.
Rock Art Paintings of Kondoa
The rock art of Kondoa belongs to the rock art traditions of central and Southern Africa which are very different from those of west Africa and the Sahara in terms of styles. The Kondoa rock art paintings sites are located on the Eastern slope of the Maasai Escarpment that borders the western side of the Eastern African Great Rift Valley (EARV) in the central Tanzania, Fragmenting rift faults and some fallen boulders have created numerous granites shelters. The sites covers the area of 2336 km² in the villages of PAHI, KOLO, MNENIA, KANDAGA, MASANGE, BUKULU, KINYASI, KISESE, THAWI, ITOLOLO and ITUNDWI. Part of this conservation area falls under the current gazzetted Irangi Escarpment Forest Reserve with the likes of Kolo, Pahi, Kinyasi and Busi sites which have the benefit of the double protection as both the Forestry Acts and Antiquities Act stands as legal muscles against any detrimental human behavior. Kondoa district has some of the most spectacular geological formation in East Africa in the form of Boulders, shelters and overhangs, it is in some of these features that the inhabitants of this area took advantage and produce the art that has made Kondoa Rock Art paintings site famous throughout the world today. The Kondoa Rock art paintings is mainly associated with the ancestor of hunter – gatherer (The modern Sandawe) and Agro – pastoralist societies and their traditions that lived in this area over several millennia. As of today the paintings are direct or indirect associated with the living traditions of the local population living near the sites which illustrate the cultural continuity through contemporary rituals ceremony performed in these sites overtime.
The Mongomi wa Kolo shelter is a clear example of Kondoa Rock art sites which is an extensive overhang. Its drop line extends for at least 14 meters from the back wall. Several panels can be identified in this shelter. On one area are the so called Late white paintings depicting animal figures resembling elephants or giraffes. Above them are panels containing the hunter gather motifs. Here the animals resemble pigs. Next to them are depicted a group of red elephants family superimposed on a trio human figure. There are also the red concentric circles very common in the Kondoa area including red human figures, red animals, white animals, and red and white geometric motifs superimposed on each other. One of the interesting figures depicted are antelope mating. Here the shelter has both the hunter – gatherer and agropastoral. To the southwest of the shelter, below the drop line, is a cavern underneath a massive boulder used by diviners to conjure their visions and potency from ancestral spirits. The remains of sacrificed goats are also placed in this hollow. Mongomi wa Kolo is the site visited by diviners and other people participating in healing and rain making rituals. Material evidence of ritual activities at the site includes leaves of the castor oil plant on the floor underneath Rock art panels and spatters of millet beer.
Several of the main Pahi shelters are scattered along the lower part of promontory and discovered some very fine paintings with white, red and black in colours, the sites are located near the bottom of the escarpment, not far from PAHI VILLAGE. The PAHI site showcase different artistic styles, associated with the three groups of people (hunter – gatherers) agriculturists, and pastoralists) that have inhabited the region over time. The images found at PAHI include giraffe, eland, Kudu, zebra, human figures. The hunter gatherers red paintings are the oldest of all in this area where it ranges from 2,000 – 10,000 years while the so called late white Agro – pastoral paintings are of 1,500 years of age which is more recently. The red paintings are associated with Sandawe Ancestors while the late whites are of the Agro – pastoral Bantu speaking societies (Warangi, Burunge).
THE PEOPLE OF KONDOA
Irangi community form larger percent of the Kondoa people. Others include Gogo, Wasi, Burunge, Mbugwe and Sandawe people. Several groups among these have claimed their directly ancestral lineage to the ancient painters of central Tanzania rock art; although most researchers have attributed the paintings to the Sandawe who traditionally are hunter – gatherers. In terms of style, the hunter gatherers paintings are mainly depicting animals, human figures often extremely stylized in one color and sometimes artists attempted to portray animals in various postures. Scenes are common, often involving human and animal figures without background details.
FAST FACTS (THE PEOPLE OF KONDOA)
Kondoa district in Dodoma Region, is home of three (3) major African ethnic language and their societies lived in the area over a long period of time, Cushitic Hunter gatherers ( Sandawe and Hadza), Nilots (Nilotics) – Iraqw / Mbulu, Maasai, Wasi) and Bantu speaking (Warangi, Burungwe). Among the three (3) ethnic groups the Warangi are the largest and they are widely known throughout the country by their Swahili name Warangi and their Kirangi language. The warangi for centuries have been practicing rituals in these rock art sites where traditional healing, rainmaking, iniation and the passing of magical power from one person to another was conducted and still are practiced today in the sites of Mongomi wa Kolo (God of Kolo).
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF KONDOA ROCK ART PAINTINGS
Educational, historical, scientific, Social spiritual, and religious purposes, plus the economic use of tourism and job creation among the society living surrounding the sites. Kondoa Rock site was inscribed in the list of the World Heritage Status since July 2006 under criteria (iii) and (iv) of UNESCO Operational Guide Lines.
FACILITIES AND ACCOMMODATION
There is a private owned campsite (Amarula campsite) in Mnenia village, just near Kolo, and a community owned campsite named after Mary Leakey. The campsite is located just along the seasonal river on the way to Mongomi wa Kolo sites. Also, some comfortable lodges are available in Kondoa Town which is 28 km from Kolo with the likes of Kondoa Climax Lodge, New Simple Lodge, Golden Apple, New Planet, River Side Resort, and many more others.
GETTING THERE / HOW TO GET TO KOLO
Kolo is located just along the famous Great North Road which runs from Cape Town to Cairo; it is four hours normal drive (241 kms) from Arusha via Babati to Kondoa and three hours normal drive (172 kms) from Dodoma towards Arusha major Roads by a private vehicle. You can get to Kolo by using both private and public transport as there are buses from both end( Departs Arusha 7 am and from Dodoma departs around 6 am daily).
SITE MUSEUM AND INFORMATION CENTRE
Tanzania Forestry Services Agency (TFS) has an office in Kolo village which stands as an information centre with a small site museum that showcase and gives a range of details for rock Arts, the history and traditions of people of Kondoa.
- BAGAMOYO – PWANI / COAST REGION
Background information (Historical Town of Bagamoyo)
Bagamoyo was once the center of slave and ivory trading. It was the last point reached by the caravans of slaves who arrived here for transportation to faraway places. Today, this attractive coastal town still bears reminders of its past – the fortified house where slaves were kept while waiting for transportation still stands, as does the tree under which they were bought and sold.
FAST FACTS (HISTORICAL TOWN OF BAGAMOYO)
- THE STONE TOWN (OLD TOWN) BAGAMOYO
With its Magnificent German – era colonial buildings, central Bagamoyo locally known as Stone
Town is well worth visiting along ocean road. Experience the old German Boma built in 1897 and Liku House – served as the German Administrative Headquarters. Also find a school dating back to the late 19th century, the first multiracial school in what is now Tanzania. On the beach is the German customs house built in 1895: Bagamoyo’s port, where boat builders can be watched; A busy fish market (on the site of the old slave market), with lively auctions mostly in the mornings and afternoons. Further south is the mid – 19th century old fort, used by Seyyid Said: the Sultan of Zanzibar as a temporary slave custody during a transit to Zanzibar slave market.
- THE CARAVAN SERAI BAGAMOYO (PWANI REGN REGION)
Experience the slave trade memories at the caravan serai mesum: Said Magram Awadh, a businessman erected the Caravan – Serai in early1870s as a transit lodge. A terminus for slave and ivory trade caravans to and from the interior of Tanganyika to Zanzibar slave market. At this point, the name BWAGAMOYO (BAGAMOYO) was derived. Meaning “Lay down the burden of your heart or throw off melancholy”
- KAOLE RUINS (BAGAMOYO) PWANI REGION
Experience the history and evidence of Shirazi residence in the coast of East Africa during 13th century.
BAGAMOYO AT A GLANCE
Bagamoyo historical town is a tourist attraction which covers 30.52 hectors. The site was established in 1956 and declared to be a conservation area in 1983. It is the famous town whereby slave trade was conducted and leading to the emergence of the name Bagamoyo from Bwagamoyo which meant Lay down the burden of your heart. It is a place where different colonizers and traders passed through to and from the interior such as the Germans, the British, the Arabs, the Indians and Africans (That is famous traders Mwanamakuka). Also the first capital of the Germans East Africa was located in Bagamoyo stone town.
Bagamoyo has an Eastern African coastal climate with bimodal rainfall which ranges from 800 – 1200 mm annually. Long rains fall from March to June and short rains from October to December. February and July are the best driest months with peak temperature of up to 29⁰C.
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION / HOW TO GET TO BAGAMOYO
Bagamoyo old stone town is located at Dunda ward, Bagamoyo district, coastal region in Tanzania, and located about 70 km North of Dar es – Salaam, 40 km from Zanzibar and 65 km from Saadani National Park. Along latitude 6.40S and longitude 38.90E. The area is reached through road, air and Ocean.
TOURISM ATTRACTIONS IN BAGAMOYO
Different attractions such as historical buildings that date more than 100 years such as old fort, old German BOMA, German multiracial school, Liku house, Arab tea house, German custom office, old Post office, Mgonera tower and others. Beautiful curved doors with Arabian and Indian styles, German and Mwanamakuka cemeteries, beautiful beaches and scenery are available in Bagamoyo old stone town.
- ENGARUKA ANCIENT IRRIGATION SYSTEM RUINS (ARUSHA )
Mysterious ruins of complex irrigation systems span the area around Engaruka, the remnants of a highly developed but unknown society that inhabited the area at least 500 years ago – and then vanished without a trace.
- MIKINDANI HISTORICAL TOWN (MTWARA REGION)
Mikindani historical town is located 546 kilometers from Dar es Salaam, south – east of Tanzania, along the Indian Ocean. Dating back to 9th century, Mikindani exhibits influences of Arabian, Portugal, Germany and the United Kingdom. Hence an exotic mix of multicultural traditions, architecture, language and cuisine. Once an administrative center in German East Africa as well as being a center for the slave trade to Reunion, Seychelles and Comoros. Also, it was Dr. David Livingstone last journey stopping point into central Africa on 24th March 1866 before.
- THE RUINS OF KILWA KISIWANI AND SONGO MNARA – LINDI REGION
The remains of two great East African parts admired by early European explorers are situated on two small islands near the coast. From the 13th to the 16th century, the merchants of Kilwa dealt in gold, silver, pearls, perfumes, Arabian crockery, Persian earthenware and Chinese porcelain; much of the trade in the Indian Ocean thus passed through their hands. Serious archaeological investigation began in the 1950s. in 1981 it was declared a World Heritage Site, and noted visitor sites are the Great Mosque, the Mkutini Palace and some remarkable ruins. However, the ruins are also on the list of World Heritage in Danger. The list constitutes a call to improve their safeguarding and is designed to rally national and international efforts for their preservation.
FAST FACTS (KILWA – THE MEDIEVAL TRADE CITY OF 9TH CENTURY)
Major attractions include, the Great Mosque dated 11th to 15th centuries, Makutani Palace and the Doomed Mosque, and Husuni Kubwa Palace and Husuni Ndogo.
- STONE TOWN -ZANZIBAR / MJI MKONGWE
Stone Town – ZANZIBAR or Mji Mkongwe in Swahili meaning “ancient town” is the old part of Zanzibar City. The old town is built on a triangular peninsula of land on the western coast of the island and was awarded World Heritage Site status in 2000. Justification for the inscription, includes its rich cultural fusion and harmonization; its great symbolic importance in the suppression of slavery; and the intense seaborne trading activity between Asia and Africa, which is illustrated today in the exceptional architecture and urban structure of Stone Town.
FAST FACTS (ZANZIBAR)
The most obvious historical site in Zanzibar is Stone Town, a World Heritage Site and the oldest continuously inhabited city in East Africa, but Zanzibar has much more to offer visitors. From the ruins of numerous palaces stemming from the Omani Sultancy, ancient mosques (notably the mosque at Kizimkazi which contains the oldest known Swahili text), Persian bathhouses, and Colonia buildings (in the Indian colonial style), Zanzibar is an absolute treasure trove for the historically inclined.
- OLDUPAI GORGE – Ngorongoro district, Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority – ARUSHA REGION)
The place of prehistorical and living culture. Major tourism attractions including – the skull of Zinjanthropus boisei dated 1.75 million years discovered by Dr. Mary Leakey at Oldupai Gorge, Oldupai Gorge Museum Building, and the Laetoli Hominid footprints dated 3.6 million years ago.
FAST FACTS (OLDUPAI GORGE – NGORONGORO CONSERVATION AREA AUTHORITY (NCCA – ARUSHA REGION)
Humans and their distant ancestors have been part of Ngorongoro’s landscape for millions of years. The earliest signs of mankind in the conservation area are at Laetoli, where hominid foot prints are preserved in volcanic rock 3.6 million years old. The story continues at Oldupai Gorge, a river canyon cut 100m deep through the volcanic soil of the Serengeti plains. Buried in the layers are the remains of animals and hominids that lived and died around a shallow lake amid grassy plains and woodlands. These remains date from two millions years ago. Visitors can learn more details of this fascinating story by visiting the site, where guides give a fascinating on site interpretation of the gorge.
- DR. DAVID LIVINGSTONE MEMORIAL MUSEUM (UJIJI – KIGOMA REGION) & DR. DAVID LIVING STONE MEMORIAL MUSEUM – TEMBE HOUSE – KWIHARA (TABORA REGION)
- DAVID LIVINGSTONE MEMORIAL MUSEUM – UJIJI KIGOMA REGION
Visit this site to experience the 19th century memories of ant – slave trade campaign for abolition of slave trade through the central slave and ivory trade route in Tanzania as well as the famous words uttered by Henry Morton Stanley ……. Dr. Livingstone (I Presume!)
- DAVID LIVINGSTONE MEMORIAL MUSEUM – TEMBE HOUSE – KWIHARA (TABORA REGN REGION)
Visit this site to experience the Tanzania central slave and ivory trade route memories, 19th century Dr. David Livingtones last journey accompanied by his loyal servants – “Susi and Chuma”
- MWALIMU NYERERE MEMORIAL MUSEUM (MAGOMENI – DAR ES – SALAAM REGION)
Visit this memorial house to experience the memories of the father of the nation – Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere during the struggle for independence of Tanganyika in 20th century.
- CHIEF MKWAWA MUSEUM – KALENGA (IRINGA REGION)
Experience the 19th century ant – colonial resistance by the hehe people led by chief Mkwawa. Chief Mkwawa skull is among the exhibits in this memorial museum.
- ISIMILA STONE AGE SITE (IRINGA REGION)
Isimila Stone Age site in Iringa region, this is an amazing acheulean and geological site with spectacular erosion pillars.
- KUNDUCHI RUINS (DAR ES SALAAM REGION)
- Background information
Kunduchi ruins located 22 kilometers north of Dar es Salaam City Centre is a reputable exceptional testimony of 18th and 19th century Swahili and Islam civilization. Visit kunduchi ruins to experience this testimony.
- AMBONI CAVES – TANGA REGION
- Background information
The most extensive limestone caves in the East African Coast.
- MBOZI METEORITE – SONGWE REGION
- Background information
Mbozi meteorite (The 18th meteorite in the world) in Songwe Region, is located at Ndolezi village, mbozi district in Songwe Region. (formerly part of Mbeya Region). It is estimated to weigh 12 tonnes and is among the 10 heaviest meteorites in the world.
- TONGONI RUINS – TANGA REGION
- Background information
Experience the evidence of the residence and Swahili cultural civilization during 14th to 15th centuries at this site, according to written records, on 6th of April, 1498, Vasco Da Gama, a famous Portuguese sailor visited Tongoni site.
- NATIONAL MUSEUM OF TANZANIA
- Background information
National Museum of Tanzania is a governmental education and cultural institution established as a body corporate under the National Museum of Tanzania Act, No. 7 of 1980. Its responsibilities include collection, preservation and research of scientific and cultural objects. In the preservation of natural and cultural heritage, the National Museum disseminates such knowledge to the public through different media such as exhibitions, publications, cultural and educational programmes and other electronic media. The National Museum of Tanzania has its head offices in Dar es Salaam at 06 Shabaan Robert Street opposite to the Institute for Finance Management (IFM) and adjacent Karimjee Hall.
FAST FACTS (THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF TANZANIA)
The National Museum of Tanzania is a consortium of seven (7) Museums whose purpose is to preserve and show exhibits about the cultural and natural heritage of Tanzania. The consortium developed from the National Museum of Dar es Salaam, established in 1934 by Tanganyika governor Harold MacMichael. The National Natural History Museum in Arusha is one in the consortium. Open since 1987. It is located in Arusha, in Boma Road. It has permanent exhibits on human evolution, entomology and ecology.
BRANCHES OF NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF TANZANIA (CONSORTIUM OF SIX (6) MUSEUMS.
The National Museum of Tanzania has been enhancing and expanding its services by opening branches in different parts of the country in order to make its services reachable and closer to the communities. Currently, the National Museum of Tanzania has seven (7) operating branches. The National Museum of Tanzania is also administering 91 monuments and sites located in different regions in Tanzania.
- MUSEUM AND HOUSE OF CULTUR
The Museum and House of Culture Dar es Salaam is a branch of the National Museum of Tanzania located along 06 Shabaan Robert Street between Sokoine Drive and Samora Avenue. This is the largest and oldest Museum in the country and flagship Museum for the National Museum of Tanzania that inherited the collections and other resources from the National Museum of Tanzania formerly known as King George V of England since 1940.
- VILLAGE MUSEUM
The village museum is a branch of the National Museum of Tanzania established in 1966 to display and preserve traditional architectures and cultures of Tanzania. It is an open air Museum located in Kijitonyama area along Bagamoyo road.
- ARUSHA NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM
- Background information
Natural History Museum in Arusha region is a branch of the National Museum of Tanzania situated in the heart of the tourist hotspot of Arusha town since 1987. It is located within the Germany Historical Building formerly Germany military and administrative compound during German East Africa.
FAST FACTS (ARUSHA NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM)
Established in 1987, the National Natural History Museum is the main natural history museum in Tanzania. It is a branch of the National Museum of Tanzania. The Museum is situated in Arusha town, the main tourist town in East Africa. It is housed in the Boma – a former German colonial military compound. The core task of the Natural History Museum is twofold: the collection and preservation of information on natural heritage on one hand, and the education and dissemination of such information through exhibitions, and publications.
- The origins of human kind and evolution – hominid findings at Oldupai Gorge, formerly referred to as Olduvai.
- Entomology – scientific studies of insects, their characteristics and behaviors.
- Environmental conservation and education through a video shows and other services.
- Nature and wildlife ecology – life size stuffed animals, visual displays
- Fish pond
- Live reptiles and birds – life history of reptiles and Apes.
- The history of the German colonial regime in Northern Tanzania.
- Mini Botanical garden with indigenous plants.
HOSTED AT THE MUSEUM
- Lorenzo Taxider mists; professional skinning and mounting of animals
- Wildlife conservation society of Tanzania
- Tanzania Tourist Board; cultural tourism. Also, the Museum Art Center. Local Arts, crafts and antiques center.
- Education center for tourists (both local and foreign) offering additional outreach programmes for those unable to visit the museum.
- Guidance to secondary school students as well as college students at large on their projects through lectures and the internet resource center.
- Guided tours to exhibition halls, fish pond, tortoise grounds and animals cages.
- ARUSHA DECLARATION MUSEUM (Explore the History of Tanzania)
Arusha Declaration Museum is a branch of the National Museum of Tanzania located along Kaloleni Road adjacent to Arusha Declaration Tower. The museum building, formerly as a social welfare hall, is a historical building where the most prominent political statement of African socialism “Ujamaa” was declared in 1967. On February 1977 the building was converted into a political museum.
FAST FACTS (ARUSHA DECLARATION MUSEUM)
Arusha Declaration Museum is located at Kaloleni area, near Uhuru Torch Tower (Mnara wa Mwenge). The museum building has a triangular roof, a unique architecture in town. Until 1967, this building was used as a social welfare hall for the Kaloleni community in Arusha. In January 1967 it hosted the historic meeting from which Tanzania’s political and economic policy was drawn. Consequently, the building attained an unusual historic significance.
The Museum’s permanent exhibition depicts pre – colonial and colonial history, struggle for independence, the formulation of the policy of self – reliance and the development of Tanzania after the Arusha Declaration. On February 1977 the building was converted into a small political museum. The museum enables the public to understand a history of the political economy of Tanzania. It is an important teaching aid for history, civics, general studies and political science subjects. The exhibition and education programs seek to raise public awareness of national glories, past social, economic and political experiences, as the foundation for maintaining a peaceful society.
- Guided tours to exhibition hall
- Public education through exhibitions
- School projects
- Museum interactive programs. Also, grounds for exhibitions / ceremonies, Hall for seminars, and workshops, Research partnership, Heritage management consultancy, Tour guide services and lecturers on specific themes on culture and history, and many more.
- Mwalimu JK Nyerere Museum
Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere Museum is a branch of the National Museum of Tanzania that documents the struggle and outstanding contributions of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, founding president of Tanzania. It is located at his home place – Mwitongo – Butiama, 48 Kilometres away from Museum town. It was officially opened to public in July 1999.
- MAJIMAJI MEMORIAL MUSEUM – SONGEA IN RUVUMA REGION
Majimaji Memorial Museum is the branch of the National Museum of Tanzania located along Mahenge street in Songea town. It was opened to the public in 2010. Formerly its ownership has been changing back and forth between the Regional Authority, the Elders council and the Songea Municipality. It is located at a place where the mass grave for the majimaji warriors and the Hero square of Ruvuma region are found.
- RASHID MFAUME KAWAWA MEMORIAL MUSEUM – SONGEA DISTRICT IN RUVUMA REGION
The Dr. Rashid Mfaume Kawawa Memorial Museum is a branch of National Museum of Tanzania. It was officially opened to the public on 27th February 2017. The Museum is located at Kawawa street, Bomba mbili area – Songea District in Ruvuma Region. The Museum presents the personal life, political life and different collections.