Across the north are the Scandinavian countries (Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland).  Greenland, a seldom – visited destination to the west of Iceland,  is considered part of North America. On the Baltic Sea, just beneath the Scandinavian Peninsula, are the Baltic nations of ( Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania).  In the northwest are the British – Isles,  which consist of Great Britain and Ireland (which is not really British at all).  In Western Europe are France and Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), as well as the Iberian Peninsula, which features Portugal and Spain. Spain is also sometimes included as part of the Mediterranean Countries, which curve along the northern shore of this legendary sea. Among them are Italy, Greece, and Turkey ( which  spills over from Asia).   (The Eastern European countries), which have swung their doors wide open to tourism are (Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic (also known as Slovakia), Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. The former nation of Yugoslavia is also among these,   but it has broken down into a series of smaller countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, and what remains of the original Yugoslavia (usually called Serbia). In the easternmost portion of Europe is Russia and its co – nations in the commonwealth of independent states (most of the former Soviet Union), which stretches well into Asia. And in the middle of Europe are nations of Alpine Europe (Germany, Switzerland, and Austria).

The most prominent feature in Europe;

Mountains, Oceans, Lakes, and Rivers have long defined Europe’s national boundaries.

  • Bodies of water;

This include the Atlantic Ocean, which lies along Europe’s western shore. In the north, the Baltic Sea separates Scandinavia from Russia and the Baltic states; and the North Sea cuts off Great Britain from the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), Germany, and Scandinavia. The Irish Sea lies between Ireland and Great Britain. The blue oval to the east is the black sea, a major resort for Eastern European and Russian tourists, as well as an increasingly popular destination for cruise ships. The Danube river, snakes its way eastward out of Germany through Eastern Europe and empties into the Black Sea. Down through Europe’s middle is the Rhine, a river that finds its source in Switzerland and flows northward through Germany and the Netherlands, and eventually into the North Sea. Both rivers offer major cruise opportunities.

  • Mountains;

The most obvious are the Alps, the thick, lofty mountains that ripple across Switzerland, Austria,  southern Germany, eastern France, and northern Italy. The Pyrenees, massive ridges that separate Spain from France,  are important, too. Medium – sized mountains and hills are in many other areas; only Denmark, Poland, Hungary and the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) are relatively flat.

  • Climate;

Europe’s weather varies immensely according to latitude, altitude, and season. The alpine mountain areas tend to be cold in winter and cool in summer, and precipitation also varies greatly. Europe’s west coasts are wet (this is especially true of Norway’s fjord area,  the west coasts of Scotland and Ireland, northwestern Portugal, and the eastern shore of the Adriatic).  There are also some very dry areas, especially southeastern and central Spain and the area northeast of the Black Sea. Rainfall in the rest of Europe tends to be (humid and showery in the summer; rainy, snowy, or cloudy in the winter, with brief, welcome spells of crisp sunshine.)

Top attractions in Europe;

  • 1. Athens (Greece)
  • 2. Lisbon (Portugal)
  • 3. Helsinki (Finland)
  • 4. Rome (Italy)
  • 5. Tallinn (Estonia)
  • 6. Dubrovnik (Croatia)
  • 7. Barcelona (Spain)
  • 8. Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 9. Bucharest (Romania)
  • 10. Stockholm (Sweden)
  • 11. Berlin (Germany)
  • 12. London (United kingdom);
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